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Australia's Top Commodities

30 March 2023

The mining industry is crucial to Australia’s economy, contributing significantly to employment opportunities and export revenue. As per Geoscience Australia, Australia produces 19 valuable minerals in significant amounts from over 350 operating mines. 

These minerals are a source of valuable materials required in various industries, including construction, manufacturing and technology. This blog post will provide an informative overview of some of Australia’s top commodities, their production and economic significance.

Iron ore

Iron ore is mined and processed to extract iron, which is then used to produce steel — a critical component in the construction and manufacturing industry. Steel makes up everything from cars and ships to bridges, buildings and appliances.

In 2021, Australia was the world’s leading iron ore exporting country, with 116.6 billion U.S. dollars worth of iron ore exported. Brazil came in at far second with 45 billion U.S. dollars, further highlighting Australia’s dominance in the sector. Most of Australia’s iron ore is produced in Western Australia’s Pilbara region, home to some of the world’s largest iron ore mines.

The importance of iron ore to the Australian economy cannot be overstated, with the industry contributing significantly to the country’s export revenue. In addition, the industry provides employment opportunities to thousands of Australians, both directly and indirectly, as it supports other industries such as shipping and logistics.

Australia’s iron ore mining has driven the country’s economic growth over the past few decades. Its demand is expected to remain strong, particularly from China — the largest iron ore consumer globally.


Coal is an abundant natural resource in Australia and has played a critical role in the country’s economy for many years. Australia was the leading coal exporter for a long time, accounting for approximately 29% of the world’s total coal exports in 2018.

Although it has various uses across various applications, coal’s primary use lies in electricity generation. It is also used in steel and cement manufacturing, making it vital to construction. The majority of Australia’s coal is produced in Queensland and New South Wales, with the industry supporting thousands of jobs in these regions.

However, since 2021, Australia has been overtaken by Indonesia as the world’s leading coal exporter, although the margin is relatively small. Despite this, the importance of coal to the Australian economy cannot be ignored. 

As the country continues to balance economic growth with sustainability, it is critical to ensure responsible mining practices and explore new technologies to reduce the industry’s environmental impact. The government has set targets to reduce carbon emissions and is investing in new technologies to reduce the environmental impact of coal production and consumption.


Gold has been a highly valued commodity for centuries, and Australia is fortunate to have abundant gold reserves. Australia is the second-largest producer of gold in the world, accounting for approximately 10% of global gold production. In 2020, Australia exported $17.7B in gold, making it the 5th largest exporter globally. This precious metal was also Australia’s 4th most shipped product in the same year.

Most of Australia’s gold is produced in Western Australia, with several large gold mines in the region. The industry supports thousands of jobs — both directly and indirectly — in mining, exploration and related services. Gold mining in Australia is highly regulated to ensure environmental sustainability and safe working conditions for miners.

The demand for gold continues to remain strong globally, with investors and central banks continuing to hold gold as a store of value and a hedge against inflation. The main destinations of gold exports from Australia include the United Kingdom, the United States, Switzerland, Hong Kong and China. Gold is also used in various industries, including electronics, aerospace and medical technology, making it a valuable commodity in more ways than one.


Uranium is a naturally occurring element found in the Earth’s crust, and it’s crucial in nuclear fuel production. Australia is one the world’s largest Economic Demonstrated Resource (EDR) of uranium and the third-largest producer globally. Still, uranium mining in Australia is subject to strict regulations to ensure it is done safely and sustainably.

Most of Australia’s uranium is exported to countries such as the United States, China and South Korea. However, short to medium-term uranium production is expected to decrease by approximately 1,900 tonnes per year (30%). This is due to the closure of the Ranger mine in January 2021.

Thorium, another naturally occurring element, has been used experimentally in the nuclear generation process. Nevertheless, there is no current commercial market for it, and large-scale production in Australia is unlikely in the next few decades. 

That said, uranium is an important contributor to regional development, particularly in the Northern Territory and South Australia, where most of these minerals are mined.

Other commodities

The country is home to many other significant assets besides those previously mentioned. Copper, nickel, natural gas and aluminium are also among the top commodities in Australia. The challenges facing these industries include fluctuating demand and prices, increasing competition from other producers and environmental concerns.

However, the opportunities for growth in these industries are significant. The increasing demand for electric vehicles and renewable energy sources drives the need for copper and nickel — essential components in producing electric cars and batteries. The aluminium industry is also experiencing growth due to ever-increasing demand from the construction and manufacturing sectors.

Australia’s top commodities — balancing economic growth with sustainability

Australia’s commodities industry is a cornerstone of the country’s economy and provides much-needed export revenue. Australia’s rich resources and mining expertise continue to make it a significant player in the international commodities scene in an ever-changing global market.

While the country has flourished for centuries due to its massive deposits of non-renewable resources, it is now more critical than ever to explore sustainable practices and develop new technologies to reduce mining on the environment. 

The country’s leadership is keen to ensure that Australia’s rich resources are managed responsibly, allowing future generations to benefit from these valuable commodities.

Optimise your mining operations with heavy equipment solutions

As a 100% Australian-owned and operated entity, National Plant & Equipment (NPE) understands the importance of the commodities industry. At the same time, we are proud to be the supplier of choice to major mining companies in Australia.

Established in 1997, NPE specialises in providing heavy earthmoving equipment to the mining and civil construction sectors. Our 100% privately owned structure affords us the agility to provide tailored solutions that exceed your expectations. We ensure your operations run smoothly and efficiently with the best machines and 24/7 maintenance support.
Browse our extensive range of rentals and contact us today to discuss your heavy earthmoving equipment needs. Let us help you drive your business forward!

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